The son of a wealthy banker, Cézanne began his studies in Aix-en-Provence at the École Saint-Joseph in 1849, then attended the Collège Bourbon from 1852 until 1858. Émile Zola, the future author, was to become one of his closest friends. Cézanne enrolled at the École Gratuite de Dessin in 1857, entering the studio of Joseph Gibert (1806-1884). Two years later, complying with his father's wishes, he began studying law at the Université d'Aix while still at the École Gratuite de Dessin. In 1861 Cézanne finally left law school and followed Zola to Paris where he met Pissarro (q.v.) at the Académie Suisse. Probably after his failure to enter the École des Beaux-Arts, he returned to Aix and began working at his father's bank. In 1862, however, Cézanne returned to Paris, where he studied at the Académie Suisse and copied the works of the Old Masters in the Louvre. The works he produced during this period reflect the influence of Spanish painters such as Ribera (1591-1562) and Zurbarán (1598-1664), and other predecessors such as Delacroix (q.v.). His submissions to the Salons of 1865 through 1870 (and even through 1881) did not receive the jury's approval; the reinstatement of the Salon des Refusés was repeatedly but unsuccessfully demanded. Cézanne traveled often between Aix and Paris until 1870. To escape the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) he stayed in the south in L'Estaque, along with his mistress, Hortense Fiquet, whom he had met in 1869. Cézanne moved back north to Pontoise with Hortense and his son, Paul, in 1872 and worked with Pissarro and met Dr. Paul Gachet. The following year he moved again to nearby Auvers-sur-Oise with his family, continuing his work with Pissarro. In 1874 and 1877 Cézanne participated in the first and third impressionist exhibitions, but the severe criticism of his works led him to abstain from using this venue again. In 1878 his father learned of the existence of Hortense and Paul, who at that point were living in Marseille, and threatened to discontinue his allowance. While in the Midi, Cézanne often worked with Monticelli (q.v.). His art increasingly matured, and he began concentrating on the order and internal structure within his compositions, limiting his palette. During these years he also met Gauguin (q.v.) and Renoir (q.v.), and always trav-eled, chiefly between Aix and L'Estaque. In 1886 Cézanne married Hortense, his father died, and the inheritance provided him with the financial means to live without constraints. He bought a house in Marlotte near Fontainebleau in 1892. In 1895 he had his first solo show at the gallery of Ambroise Vollard, who two years later bought all the artist's works from his studio near Corbeil. The dealer Paul Durand-Ruel became another important client. Cézanne participated in the Salon des Indépendants in 1899, 1901, and 1902 and exhibited at La Libre Esthétique in Brussels in 1901 and 1904, the Secession in Vienna in 1903, and the Salon d'Automne in 1904-6. He continued to study the underlying structure of nature, at times approaching abstraction by denying traditional perspective and using multiple viewpoints. He also began leaving portions of the canvas bare, giving some works an unfinished appearance. Cézanne's work had a tremendous influence on the artists of his time as well as those of subsequent generations, and he is considered one of the most influential figures in the development of modern art.