George Cruikshank (1792-1878), one of the most prolific illustrators and satirists working in England, was praised as the "modern Hogarth"1 during his lifetime. He was a child of the eighteenth century and of the city of London. Born in the fashionable Bloomsbury district he was a member of the Cruikshank family of caricaturists and artists. His father Isaac was a well-known engraver and caricaturist. From an early age George worked at his side learning the techniques of etching, watercolor, and sketching.
Alfred Stieglitz, photographer, editor, writer, and gallery owner, was an integral figure in the development of 20th century photography and modern art in America at the turn-of-the-century. Born in Hoboken, New Jersey in 1864, Stieglitz became fascinated with photography at an early age. His father Edward, a prosperous wool merchant, was able to educate his children abroad. In 1882, Alfred enrolled in the Technische Hochschule in Berlin where he studied photochemistry.
"The most celebrated private press in the history of printing"1 was founded by William Morris (1834-1896) in 1891. At age 56, Morris was internationally known for the furniture, stained glass, wallpaper, and textiles sold through his firm, Morris & Co; for his many literary works; and for founding the breakaway Socialist League.
The growth of image collections in U.S. educational and cultural institutions has evolved since the early days of photography and the image collection at the Cleveland Museum of Art is no exception. Images have played a critical role in the educational and research functions of the museum. In its earliest days, lantern slides played a significant role in the history of the museum. As early as July 1914 Cleveland Museum of Art director, Frederic Whiting, used lantern slides to illustrate his talks on American Museums in order to publicize the new Cleveland Museum.
Education has always played an important role in the mission of the Cleveland Museum of Art. When the museum opened in 1916 one of the two spaces on the museum's ground floor, dedicated to work with children, was the Children's Museum. The goals of the Children's Museum were to foster a "love and knowledge of art,"1 stimulate children's imaginations, and provide visual representations of school lessons in design, history and geography.2 The space was filled with child-sized tables and chairs and stocked with paper and crayons to encourage drawing.
Pochoir, literally the French word for stencil, is both a centuries-old printmaking process and an important chapter in modern graphic arts. Pochoir came to refer to fine stencil printing in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. It reached its zenith in Paris between 1910 and 1935 where it was used to decorate everything from elegant fashion magazines and limited edition illustrated books, to greeting cards, wallpapers and advertisements.
The Ingalls Library Scroll Collection contains approximately fifty Chinese and Japanese scrolls, including a number of them purchased from or donated by Sherman E. Lee (1918-2008). Some of the scrolls are limited original productions by the scholars' studios, whereas others are reproductions of fine classical works.
Change was coming for the arts, though not as yet in 1911 Cleveland. Although traditional art schools had been in existence since the late 1870's, Cleveland's working industrial and commercial artists, by day laboring lithographers and engravers, had trained under European artists, and they knew about Modernism. Carl Moellman, an "ardent disciple" of the late Robert Henri, wanted to promote Henri's loose and free style. His friend and fellow artist, William Sommer, was in his post-impressionistic period of painting.
Gustav Stickley was born in Wisconsin in 1857, the eldest of Leopold and Barbara Stoeckel's eleven children. He apprenticed to his stone mason father at a young age but dropped out of school and the trade when his father abandoned the family. By the time Gustav reached sixteen, the family had relocated to Pennsylvania to be near his mother's relatives. As the eldest child, he accepted the task of supporting the family, working at the Brandt Chair Company, owned by his uncle, where he became a manager and foreman. In 1883, he opened a furniture business with his brothers.
During his first visit to Tahiti (1891-1893), Paul Gauguin documented his experiences in his travel journal, Noa Noa. We first encounter the phrase, 'noa noa,' when Gauguin describes the scent of the Tahitian women:
A mingled perfume, half animal, half vegetable emanated from them; the perfume of their blood and of the gardenias—tiaré—which they wore in their hair.
"Téiné merahi noa noa (now very fragrant)," they said.1