The dog in this scene likely refers to late medieval Passion literature, which often compared Christ's tormentors to dogs.
Martin Schongauer's series of the Passion of Christ was his largest set of engravings, made around 1480, and extensively copied across Europe. It consists of twelve prints detailing the suffering of Christ in the last days of his life. Schongauer's version focuses on crowded scenes, grotesque physiognomies of Christ's tormentors, and great pathos in the composition. Here, Christ is led before Pontius Pilate. The Roman governor washes his hands in water which a servant is pouring from a ewer into a basin. Right after, he orders Christ's crucifixion.
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