The Cleveland Museum of Art

Collection Online as of April 18, 2024

Close Helmet

Close Helmet

c. 1575

Did You Know?

Etching, by far the most common technique for armor decoration, involved the use of a graving tool assisted by acid to create a design. The etched design could then be blackened to create contrast as shown here.


Decoration was critical to fine armor, and etching was the most commonly used technique. Here, the bands along the borders are etched. On the breastplate, pauldrons (shoulder guards), and tassets (hip and upper leg guards), etched medallions enclose profile busts reminiscent of ancient Roman portraits. The lance rest on the breastplate indicates that this half-suit was once part of a complete field armor for man and horse. The etching technique used for armor was developed in the late 1400s. The metal surface was first coated with an acid-resistant substance, such as wax or varnish. An etching needle was then used to scratch a design into the surface. The exposed areas were then treated with an acid that would "bite" or etch the lines into the metal. When the coating was removed, the etched design was blackened for contrast.
  • Duc d'Osuna
    Frank Gair Macomber (1849-1941), Boston, MA, sold to the Cleveland Museum of Art
    The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH
  • Catalogue of Arms and Armour. Vol. 3, 16th century. [Boston, Massachusetts]: [Frank Gair Macomber], [1900-1915]. Mentioned and Reproduced: No. (155) 158
    Fliegel, Stephen N. Arms and Armor: The Cleveland Museum of Art. [Cleveland, Ohio]: The Museum, 1998. pp. 76-7, 81, 162, Cat. no. 3
    Fliegel, Stephen N. Arms & Armor: The Cleveland Museum of Art. [Cleveland, Ohio]: Cleveland Museum of Art, 2007. cat. no. 5, p. 182
  • {{cite web|title=Close Helmet|url=false|author=|year=c. 1575|access-date=18 April 2024|publisher=Cleveland Museum of Art}}

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