The Cleveland Museum of Art

Collection Online as of February 23, 2024

The Annunciation

The Annunciation


Did You Know?

In this depiction of Gabriel, the angel's wings resemble the feathers of a peacock.


This small but opulent panel painting was once joined to another panel with hinges to form a diptych. Given its small size, its original function was for private devotional use. It could be folded like a book when not in use and was highly portable. The missing panel has not been positively identified but probably represented another biblical scene like the Crucifixion. The painting’s refined and ornate style reflects the courtly aesthetic that appealed to royal and aristocratic patrons in the decades around 1400. On the panel’s richly tooled reverse (not visible) are the arms of the house of Hainault quartered with those of Bavaria. While this coat of arms is certainly that of the work’s patron, probably a member of the united dynasties of Hainault and Bavaria, their identity remains elusive.
  • 1863-1925
    Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, Germany
    (C. A. de Burlet, Berlin, Germany)
    (R. Langton Douglas)
    Arthur Sachs, New York sold to the Cleveland Museum of Art
    The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH
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    Jacques Seligmann & Co. Loan Exhibition of Religious Art: For the Benefit of the Basilique of the Sacre Coeur of Paris at the Galleries of Jacques Seligmann ... New York, March-April 1927. New York: The Gallery, 1928. Cat. No. 1.
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    Ring, Grete. A Century of French Painting, 1400-1500. London: Phaidon Press, 1949. p. 24, 193, pl. 17, cat. no. 16
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    Pächt, Otto. "Panofsky's 'Early Netherlandish Painting'-I." The Burlington Magazine 98, no. 637 (1956). p. 113
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    The Cleveland Museum of Art. The Cleveland Museum of Art Handbook. Cleveland, OH: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1958. Mentioned and Reproduced: cat. no. 395
    Cleveland Museum of Art, and William Mathewson Milliken. The Cleveland Museum of Art. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1958. p. 26
    Musper, H. Theodor. Gotische Malerei nördlich der Alpen. Köln: M. DuMont Schauberg, 1961. p. 264, fig. 226
    Walters Art Gallery (Baltimore, Md.). The International Style: The Arts in Europe Around 1400; [Exhibition]: October 23-December 2, 1962, / B. [Baltimore, Md.]: Walters Art Gallery, 1962. p. 24
    "Gothic Art 1360-1440." The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 50, no. 7 (1963): 174-215. Cat. No. 19, p. 157.
    "Front Matter." The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 50, no. 7 (1963). Front Cover
    "Gothic Art 1360-1440." The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 50, no. 7 (1963): 174-215. p. 203
    Bober, Harry, "Medieval Art in Cleveland," Apollo LXXCIII (1963). p. 456
    Châtelet, Albert, and Jacques Thuillier. French Painting: From Fouquet to Poussin. Geneva: Skira, 1963. p. 15
    Cleveland Museum of Art. A Missal for a King. [Cleveland]: [The Museum], 1963. Reproduced: p. 1
    Eisler, Colin, "Le Gothique International," Art de France IV (1964). p. 290
    Bazin, Germain. Kindlers Malerei Lexikon: 1000 Malersignaturen, 1200 farbige Reproducktionen, 3000 schwarzweisse Reproduktionen in sechs Bänden. 1964. p. 201
    Frinta, Mojmír Svatopluk. 1965. "An Investigation of the Punched Decoration of Mediaeval Italian and Non-Italian Panel Paintings". Art Bulletin / Ed. John Shapley [U.a.]. 261-265. p. 264
    The Cleveland Museum of Art. Handbook of the Cleveland Museum of Art/1966. Cleveland, OH: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1966. Reproduced: p. 63
    Laclotte, Michel. Primitifs français. [Paris]: Hachette, 1966. p. 14-15
    Castelnuovo, Enrico. Il gotico internazionale in Europa. Milano: Fratelli Fabbri, 1966. p. 22, pl. 11
    Wixom, William D. Treasures from Medieval France. [Cleveland]: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1967. pp. 242-243
    Cleveland Museum of Art. Selected Works: Cleveland Museum of Art. 1967. p. 95
    Musée du Louvre, and Council of Europe. L'Europe gothique, XIIe XIVe siècles. Musée du Louvre, Pavillon de Flore, Paris, 2 avril-1er juillet 1968. Paris: Ministère d'État, Affaires culturelles, 1968. no. 300, p. 186
    The Cleveland Museum of Art. Handbook of the Cleveland Museum of Art/1969. Cleveland, OH: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1969. Reproduced: p. 63
    Wixom, William D. "An Enthroned Madonna with the Writing Christ Child." The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 57, no. 9 (1970). p. 290, 297, fig. 11
    Cleveland Museum of Art. Catalogue of Paintings. Pt. 1. European Paintings before 1500. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1974. Reproduced: p. 21 - 24; colorplate VI
    Sterling, Charles. "Fighting Animals in the Adoration of the Magi." The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 61, no. 10 (1974): 350-59. Footnote No. 4
    Meiss, Millard, Sharon Off Dunlap Smith, and Elizabeth H. Beatson. French Painting in the Time of Jean De Berry: The Limbourgs and Their Contemporaries. New York: George Braziller, 1974. p. 87, 446, n. 52
    Cleveland Museum of Art. European Paintings Before 1500. Cleveland: The Museum, 1974. . pp. 21-24, cat. no. 8
    Sterling, Charles, Albert Châtelet, and Nicole Reynaud. Études D'art Français Offerts À Charles Sterling. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1975. pp. 47-63
    Schmidt, Gerhard. 1975. "Zur Datierung des "kleinen" Bargello-Diptychons und der Verkündigungstafel in Cleveland". Etudes D'art Français Offertes À Charles Sterling / Réunies Et Publiées Par Albert Châtelet Et Nicole Reynaud. 47-63. p. 33
    Castelfranchi Vegas, Liana. Romanico e gotico. Milano: Fratelli Fabbri Editori, 1976. p. 20
    The Cleveland Museum of Art. Handbook of the Cleveland Museum of Art/1978. Cleveland, OH: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1978. Reproduced: p. 71
    Sutton, Denys, "Dramatic Days" Apollo: A Journal of the Arts (June 1979) p. 454
    Raeber-Keel, Ursula. Spätgotische Wandmalereien in St. [i.e. Sankt] Peter zu Basel: Die Grabnische mit den Efringerwappen. Sigmaringen: J. Thorbecke, 1979. p. 171, no. 109
    Moench, Esther. "Stefano da Verona: La Quete d'Une Double Paternite" Zeitschrift Fur Kunstgeschichte. 2 (1986) pp. 220-228
    Cleveland Museum of Art. Interpretations: Sixty-Five Works from the Cleveland Museum of Art. 1991. p. 8
    Šebková-Thaller, Zuzana. Sünde und Versöhnung in Jan van Eycks Hochzeitsbild. Markt Berolzheim: Hernoul-le-Fin Verlag, 1992. p. 181, Tafel 83, no. 2
    Castelnuovo, Enrico. Vetrate medievali: officine, techniche, maestri. Torino: G. Einaudi, 1994. pp. 170-171
    König, Eberhard. Die Très belles heures von Jean de France duc de Berry: ein Meisterwerk an der Schwelle zur Neuzeit. München: Hirmer, 1998. no. 3, p. 244
    Toman, Rolf, and Achim Bednorz. The art of Gothic: architecture, sculpture, painting. Köln: Könemann, 1999. p. 396
    Gratton, Marie. Dessine-moi le mystère: regards sur l'art sacré. [Montréal]: Fides, 2002. pp. 32-33, 171
    Fliegel, Stephen N., Sophie Jugie, and Virginie Barthélémy. Art from the Court of Burgundy: The Patronage of Philip the Bold and John the Fearless 1364-1419 : Musée Des Beaux-Arts De Dijon, May 28-September 15, 2004, the Cleveland Museum of Art, October 24, 2004-January 9, 2005. [Dijon]: Musée des beaux-arts, 2004. Cat.No.18, p. 66
    Nys, Ludovic, Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, Xavier Fontaine, and Jacques Debergh. Campin in context: peinture et société dans la vallée de l'Escaut à l'époque de Robert Campin, 1375-1445. Valenciennes: Presses universitaires de Valenciennes, 2007. pp. 186-187
    Eikelmann, Renate, Holger A. Klein, Stephen N. Fliegel, and Virginia Brilliant. The Cleveland Museum of Art: Meisterwerke von 300 bis 1550. München: Hirmer, 2007. p. 207, no. 76
    Cleveland Museum of Art, and Holger A. Klein. Sacred Gifts and Worldly Treasures: Medieval Masterworks from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art, 2007. Mentioned and reproduced: P. 194-195, no. 96
    Stroo, Cyriel, Dominique Deneffe, Famke Peters, and Wim Fremout. Pre-Eyckian panel painting in the Low Countries. Primitifs Flamands I, II and III. Brussels: [Brepols], 2009. p. 198, 200, fig. 12-13
    Fajt, Jiří, and Markus Hörsch, eds. Kaiser Karl IV., 1316-2016: erste Bayerisch-Tschechische Landesausstellung: Ausstellungskatalog. Praha: Národní Galerie v Praze, 2016. Mentioned: p. 448; Reproduced: p. 449, fig. 10.8
    Kosina, Elena and Ulf-Dietrich Korn. Die Mittelalterlichen Glasmalereien in Niedersachsen: Ohne Lüneburg und die Heideklöster. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft, 2017. Mentioned: p. 56-57; Reproduced: p. 58, fig. 27
    Fajt, Jiří. Nürnberg als Kunstzentrum des Heiligen Römischen Reichs: höfische und städtische Malerei in der Zeit Kaiser Karls IV. 1346-1378. Berlin : Deutscher Kunstverlag ; Prag : Nationalgalerie Prag 2019. Reproduced: p. 122, Abb. 99, detail on p. 323, Abb. 352, detail on p. 407, abb. 455, detail on p. 514, Abb. 569
  • Gothic Art 1360-1440. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH (organizer) (August 6-September 15, 1963).
    Juxtapositions. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH (September 11-October 10, 1965).
    Treasures of Medieval France. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH (organizer) (November 16, 1966-January 29, 1967).
    When Angels Bent Near the Earth to Touch Their Harps of Gold: The Christmas Story. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH (organizer) (December 1, 1981-January 17, 1982).
    Dukes and Angels: Art from the Court of Burgundy (1364-1419). Musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon, Dijon, France (May 27-September 15, 2004); The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH (organizer) (October 24, 2004-January 9, 2005).
    Sacred Gifts and Worldly Treasures: Medieval Masterworks from the Cleveland Museum of Art. National Museum of Bavaria, Munich, Germany (May 10-September 16, 2007); J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA (October 30, 2007-January 20, 2008); Frist Art Museum, Nashville, TN (February 13-June 7, 2009).
    Emperor Charles IV (1316-1378). National Gallery Prague, Prague, Czech Republic (organizer) (May 14-September 25, 2016); Germanisches Nationalmuseum, 90402 Nürnberg, Germany (October 20, 2016-March 5, 2017).
    Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, MA (1927).
    French Painting 1100-1900, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (Oct. 18th-Dec. 2, 1951).
    La Vierge dans l'art Français, Petit Palais, Paris, France (June 1950).
    Collection of Arthur Sachs, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, CA (July 22-October 18, 1946).
    French Art 1200-1900, Royal Academy, London (January-March 1932).
    French Gothic Art of the 13th to 15th Century, Detroit Institute of Arts, MI (Nov. 16 to Dec. 5, 1928).
    French Primitives and Objects of Art, Kleinberger Galleries, New York, NY (Oct. 15 - Nov. 12, 1927).
    Religious Art, Jacques Seligman & Co. Gallery, New York, NY (March-April 1927).
  • {{cite web|title=The Annunciation|url=false|author=|year=1380s|access-date=23 February 2024|publisher=Cleveland Museum of Art}}

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