In these teacher materials, students will explore the relationship between building form and function and be introduced to the concept of functional mythology—that the building takes the shape base
In this lesson, students will learn about the Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio. They will see the appearance of these numbers in art, architecture, and nature.
Sandro Botticelli (Italian, 1444/45-1510), and Workshop
tempera and oil on wood, Framed: h. 115.00 cm (45 1/4 inches); Diameter: w. 68.00 cm (26 3/4 inches). Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. Fund 1970.160
The perfectly round form, called a tondo, became popular during the 1440s. Usually for domestic settings instead of churches, the circular format challenged the artist to create a harmonious, balanced composition within this more difficult shape.
The attribution has been a matter of debate. Botticelli often collaborated with students, including Filippino Lippi, who would himself become a significant painter. Few specialists have doubted that Botticelli executed the central passages: the delicate modeling of the faces, the graceful poses, the figures’ profound interiority, and the diaphanous veil are the artist’s hallmarks. However, someone else in Botticelli’s studio probably painted Mary’s blue garment, also the most heavily restored part of the painting.
Possibly Expositions du Palais Bourbon, Paris, 1880's
Cambridge, Mass., Fogg Art Museum, 1915: "loan Exhibition of Italian Paintings."
Loan Exhibition of Italian Paintings, Cambridge, Mass., Fogg Art Museum,
Year in Review, CMA, February 1971, cat. no. 35, illus. p. 21 (color)
Florence and the Arts: Five Centuries of Patronage, CMA, 1971, cat. no. 8, illus.